is ample literary and epigraphic testimony to the antiquity of the
temple of Lord Sri Venkateswara.
All the great dynasties of rulers of the southern peninsula have
paid homage to Lord Sri Venkateswara in this ancient shrine. The
Pallavas of Kancheepuram (9th century AD), the Cholas of Thanjavur
(a century later), the Pandyas of Madurai, and the kings and chieftains
of Vijayanagar (14th - 15th century AD) were devotees of the Lord
and they competed with one another in endowing the temple with rich
offerings and contributions.
It was during the rule of the Vijayanagar
dynasty that the contributions to the temple increased. Sri Krishnadevaraya
had statues of himself and his consorts installed at the portals
of the temple, and these statues can be seen to this day. There
is also a statue of Venkatapati Raya in the main temple.
After the decline of the Vijayanagar
dynasty, nobles and chieftains from all parts of the country continued
to pay their homage and offer gifts to the temple. The Maratha general,
Raghoji Bhonsle, visited the temple and set up a permanent endowment
for the conduct of worship in the temple. He also presented valuable
jewels to the Lord, including a large emerald which is still preserved
in a box named after the General. Among the later rulers who have
endowed large amounts are the rulers of Mysore and Gadwal.
After the fall of the Hindu kingdoms,
the Muslim rulers of Karnataka and then the Britishers took over,
and many of the temples came under their supervisory and protective
In 1843 AD, the East India Company
divested itself of the direct management of non-Christian places
of worship and native religious institutions. The administration
of the shrine of Sri Venkateswara and a number of estates were then
entrusted to Sri Seva Dossji of the Hatiramji Mutt at Tirumala,
and the temple remained under the administration of the Mahants
for nearly a century, till 1933 AD.
In 1933, the Madras Legislature passed
a special act, which empowered the Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams(TTD)
Committee to control and administer a fixed group of temples in
the Tirumala-Tirupati area, through a Commissioner appointed by
the Government of Madras.
In 1951, the Act of 1933 was replaced
by an enactment whereby the administration of TTD was entrusted
to a Board of Trustees, and an Executive Officer was appointed by
the Government .
The provisions of the Act of 1951
were retained by Charitable and Religious Endowments Act, 1966.
There are three temples here - Keezh Tirupati, Thirumalai, Thiruchaanur
Keezh Tirupati - Govindaraja Perumal
The Moolavar is Govindaraja Perumal seen in bujanga sayanam facing
east. There is a sannadhi for Aandaal.
Thaayaar - Pundareegavalli.
Moolavar - Thiruvengadamudaiaan, Srinivaasan, Venkataachalapathy,
Baalaaji seen in standing posture facing east. The utsavar is Kalyaana
Venkateswarar. The temple is located on seven hills - Venkataadri,
Seshaasalam, Vedaasalam, Garudaasalam, Vrushabaadri, Anjanaadri,
Anaandaadri. The sannadhi of Aadi Varaahar is at the north west
of Swami Pushkarini. Devotees must worship this lord before the
darshan of Lord Venkateswara.
Theertham - Seshaasalaswami Pushkarini,
Papanasam falls, Aagaasa Gangai, Koneri Theertham
14 Theerthams - Vaigunda Theertham, Chakra Theertham, Jaabaali Theertham,
Varuna Theertham, Aagaasa Gangai, Paapavinaasam, Paandava Theertham,
Kumaarathaarai, Ramakrishna Theertham, Thumburu Theertham, Sesha
Theertham, Sugasanthana Theertham, Yuddhakala Theertham, Seethamma
- Alarmel Mangaapuram
Moolavar - Thaayaar - Alarmelmangai (Padmaavathi)
Theertham - Padmasarovaram.